What are Viruses, Worms, Trojan horses, Spyware, Spams, Hackers and crackers, Anti Virus Tools and Data Backup and Security.


A Viruse is a program usually hidden within another simple program. It produces copies of itself and inserts them into other programs or files, successively destroying the info and performing other malicious actions. Computer viruses are never naturally occurring; they’re always man-made. Once created and released, however, their spread doesn’t remain directly under our control. While developing the viruses, programmers have specific target in mind like data theft or destruction of software, which runs the computers. The virus are often transferred hidden in files, programs or maybe in disks. The viruses are often of various kind but a standard virus is macro virus, which is discussed intimately here.

A simple macro is series of programming steps that are stored during a single location. Macro allows automation of the many actions with only one keystroke. These are often embedded within the program files. Many programs, like Word and excel allow you to record a series of keystrokes and menu selections then save them to a file. This helps eliminate doing an equivalent action several times increasing efficiency. Macro viruses created with the intention of fooling the user can deceive them in sharing tip . This information are often employed by the Macro to wreck the pc data or software. The virus using macro files are hottest as they are:

  1. Easy to write down.
  2. Can infect more people faster as they exchange documents and data frequently.
  3. Can easily infect any computer capable of running Office and Internet.

Macro viruses can corrupt data, create new files, move text, flash colors, insert pictures, send files across the web , and format hard drives. Macro viruses are increasingly used as transport mechanisms to drop off even nastier bugs. Macro viruses modify registries, forward copies of it through emails, search for passwords, copy documents, and infect other programs. Macro viruses can do tons of various damage during a lot of various ways.
Example of macro Virus is Wazzo, W97M etc.


Worms are very almost like viruses within the manner that they’re computer programs that replicate copies of themselves (usually to other computer systems via network connections). Viruses often, but not always, contain some functionality which will interfere with the traditional use of a computer or a program. Unlike viruses, however, worms exist as separate entities; they are doing not attach themselves to other files or programs. due to their similarity to viruses, worms also are often mentioned as viruses. Some samples of the worst Worms that impacted the online are as follows:

  1. Jerusalem is one among the earliest worms that spread in 1987. it’s also one among the foremost commonly known viruses. It wont to delete files that were executed on each Friday the 13th. it had been first detected within the city of Jerusalem.
  2. In 1991, thousands of machines running MS-DOS were hit by a replacement worm, Michelangelo. The virus would overwrite the hard disc or change the master boot
    record of infected hosts.
  3. In 2007 Storm Worm hit the computers. Once hit, your machine becomes a part of an outsized botnet which performs automated tasks that range from gathering data on the host machine, to sending infected emails to others. About 1.2 billion emails were sent from the infected computers propagating infection.

Since Worms spread mostly through the e-mail attachments, the simplest ways to avoid them is using caution in opening emails. If the e-mail is from an unidentified source, it’s always best to delete it. Most of the time worms attach themselves to email. Even the sender of email doesn’t recognize what they need forwarded, as emails are sent automatically using all contact information within the user’s profile.

Trojan horses

A computer virus a program that claims to rid your computer of viruses but instead introduces viruses into the system. Since they appear like sincere programs they’re referred as Trojan just like the computer virus of Greek mythology . The Trojan program doesn’t attach itself to the files sort of a virus nor replicate itself sort of a worm but it does provide unauthorized access to user’s computer. they’re mostly spread through internet downloads and online gaming programs. They mostly affect the targeted computers. The trojan program prompts you to try to to the traditional functions like inputting your email address or profile name. You do so, not knowing
that, you’ve got provided access to the malicious software. This software is capable of taking up the functionality of your computer. An infected computer will begin to work slowly and can exhibit pop-ups from time to time. Eventually the pc will cease to work , or crash.

The best thanks to avoid the Trojans is to adopt safe download practices. If you’re unsure of the web site safety, then it’s probably best to not download any program from that source. An example of the computer virus was “I love you” which infected several computers in USA and Asia, completely damaging the info of many computer.


A Spyware because the name suggest a program wont to spy on the pc system. This program will attempt to get all the confidential and sensitive information like your checking account numbers, passwords etc. Then this confidential data is misused to access user’s accounts. Spyware also can change the configuration of your computer, generally without obtaining your consent first. There are variety of the way Spyware or other unwanted software can get on to computer. a standard trick is to covertly install the software during the installation of other software that’s being downloaded like music or video or a file-sharing program. Once installed, the Spyware monitors user activity on the web and transmits that information within the background to somebody else . Spyware also can gather information about e-mail addresses and even passwords and mastercard numbers. SpyWare sends information back to the spyware’s home base via the user’s Internet connection, thus it eats user’s internet bandwidth. SpyWare applications running within the background can cause system crashes or general system instability as they use memory and system resources of the user’s computer. SpyWare have the power to watch keystrokes, scan files on the disk drive , snoop other applications, like chat programs or word processors. It also installs other SpyWare programs, read cookies, change the default home page on the online browser. While doing so, it consistently relays this information back to the SpyWare author who will either sell the knowledge to a different party or use it for advertising/marketing purposes.

Some of the common Spywares are CoolWebSearch, Internet optimizer and Zango.


Malware is brief for “malicious software.” Malware is any quite unwanted software that’s installed without your adequate consent. The intent of the malware is to wreck the info or functionality of the pc or network. actually all the threats mentioned above like virus, Trojans etc are samples of Malware.


The term “spam” refers to unsolicited commercial email (UCE) or unsolicited bulk email (UBE). it’s flooding the web with many copies of an equivalent message, in an effort to force the message on people that wouldn’t otherwise prefer to receive it. it’s also referred as junk email. Unsolicited email mostly contains advertisements for services or products. However most of the spams are from marketers or user who try to deceive
the users. the foremost commonly seen spam includes the following:

Phishing scams, a really popular and dangerous sort of email fraud

  • Foreign bank scams or advance fee fraud schemes
  • Other “Get Rich Quick” or “Make Money Fast” (MMF) schemes
  • Quack health products and remedies

Spam emails isn’t only unwanted, it clogs your email accounts and uses unnecessary server space. This creates burden on servers within the businesses. Since Internet may be a public platform, it’s never possible to completely stop the Spam email. However precaution are often taken while watching an unknown email addresses. Most of the e-mail hosts can identify such users and help filter them. Spam costs the sender little or no to send — most of the prices are purchased by the recipient or the carriers instead of by the sender. it’s due to these additional costs that the majority of the hosts are very keen that users use spam filters also as report spams in order that they are often stopped.

Hackers and crackers

Hackers and crackers are the software programmers who use dubious ways to urge control over your computer and systems. The intent of both hackers and crackers is to realize control over your computer in order that they will get the sensitive tip . They then use this information against you by stealing money, personal data, pictures, bank details and government military information, so on then forth. This information can either be sold for money or hackers access account themselves to rob you directly. Originally hackers were the gifted programmers who gain access to the systems or network to point out case the safety loopholes to the administrators. Later the term cracker was coined for such activist who had intentions of doing malicious activities. Crackers have an end goal of destroying data and network for private monetary gains.

Anti Virus Tools

Anti Virus tools are the software programs that help us detect the virus in emails or files and hence protect our computers. These tools can detect virus, worms, Trojans also as spyware and adware. They block us from visiting unsafe websites, and also downloading unsafe programs from such websites. They protect us from identity thefts and threats from phishing websites. There are several commercial antivirus softwares available like Norton, Mcafee, K7, Quickheal etc.

Data Backup and security

As we discussed earlier, there are threats to the computers that are sometimes hard to avoid. Unknowingly we may open an email which will have virus attachments and may destroy all the program and data on our computer. that’s why to guard ourselves from such unknown threat; we’d like to assure backing up the info . the essential principal on data copy is extremely simple, just make another copy of the info and keep it elsewhere than on an equivalent computer. This guarantees that when the info on your computer gets corrupted thanks to a threat, you’ll reload the info again on your computer once it’s been rectified. lately you’ve got external hard drives which may copy data. Also most of the smart devices also are wont to copy the info . Before we discuss intimately the way to use the safety tools, here are a number of the guiding principles to use the computers securely.

  • Using Security software like Norton antivirus, Symantec etc.
  • Never share passwords
  • Beware of email attachments form unknown sources
  • Do not randomly download material from websites which has not been checked for security
  • Never propagate hoax or chain emails
  • Always logout your laptop or computer
  • Restrict remote access
  • Frequently copy important data and files
  • Use encryption or sites that use encrypted data

There are several security tools available which help us protect against all kinds of threats mentioned above. In brief, the tools are available for antispam, antivirus, firewalls, encryption tools, password managers and cleanup tools.

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